1. Africa Focus: Sights and Sound of a Continent |

This well crafted site is produced and maintained by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Libraries and the African Studies Department of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. This is a multi media exhibit that provides access to more than 3,000 slides, 500 photographs and 50 hours of sound material collected by the African Studies Department. A user can search by country, collection, subject, or key word. One nice feature of this site lets us bookmark certain records that stand out to us during each new visit. Each record provides documentation information such as location, date, documenter, etc. FOR HAIR RECORDS, SEARCH BY KEYWORD FOR: "Hair", "Hairstyle" and "Hairdo".

2. Africa: One Continent, Many Worlds - Personal Adornment |

This web page is part of a larger digital exhibit titled Africa: One Continent, Many Worlds, a collaborative project between The Field Museum, the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, the California African American Museum and the Armory Center for the Arts. A user can click on any of the 13 thumbnail images of African hair care tools from 5 different regions for a larger image and a small amount of background information that includes a link to limited information on that particular region and collection information for the photograph.

3. Bon Coiffure: Barber Shop Signs From West Africa

This section of the Indigo Arts Gallery displays 29 barber and beauty shop signs from four regions in Africa that reflect American advertising intervening in African tradition. Images can be clicked and viewed at a larger size. There is also a short bibliography with cover image and description of the books.

4. Museum for African Art: Hair in African Art and Culture

This site is a very short introduction to the traveling exhibit "Hair in African Art and Culture" and the accompanying book by the same name.  It provides seven thumbnail images from the exhibit that can be enlarged, background information on the exhibit, and a link to the Museum for African Art.

5. West African Hair Braiding

This is a short report on the historical role hair braiding plays in traditional African communities and the changes braiding has experienced from an increase in urbanization. A presentation by two African hair braiders at the California Academy of Sciences allowed for a demonstration and photos to be taken of some braiding styles. 

6. West African Objects: Asante Combs

This web page is a section of digital rendition of a 1999 art exhibit in Newtown, Pennsylvania titled "Beauty, Ritual, and Culture: West African Art in Context". The exhibit provides images of a small number of handcrafted objects, including these three hair combs, and some textual narrative on each piece. The photographs are often too dark, inhibiting the user to get a full sense of the texture of the objects. Also included is a map of western Africa and a text-only based selected bibliography of works on African textiles and art.



Daniel 7:9

I be
held till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool: his throne was like the fiery flame, and his wheels as burning fire.

Song of Solomon 4:1

Behold, thou art fair, my love; behold, thou art fair; thou hast doves' eyes within thy locks: thy hair is as a flock of goats, that appear from mount Gilead.

Numbers 6:5

All the days of the vow of his separation there shall no razor come upon his head: until the days be fulfilled, in the which he separateth himself unto the LORD, he shall be holy, and shall let the locks of the hair of his head grow.

Proverbs 20:29

The glory of young men is their strength, And the honor of old men is their gray hair.

Revelation 1:14

His head and His hair were white like wool, as white as snow, and His eyes were as a flame of fire;





1. "African Hair Artistry: From processed to natural" SOUL Magazine |

An article that helps to ease the transition from processed to natural hair.

2. B.A.D. - Braids and Dreads |

Natural hair salon in Richmond, Virginia that specializes in braiding and dredlocks. Some of the site's features are a photo gallery, a selected bibliography of hair braiding books, a discussion list hosted by B.A.D., and more.

3. Essence of Braiding |

A Richmond, Virginia salon that specializes in different types of braids. The photo gallery provides images of 14 different braid styles, like "goddess braids", "cobra stitch", "bantu knots", and "senegalese".

4. Everette's Corn-Rows and Braiding Academy |

Everette's is a school for braiding, locking, and other natural hair care in Detroit. The web site provides a short history of Everette's, a schedule of upcoming events, information on classes, seminars, books, services and products, and a newsletter subscription option for the broader community.

5. Marline's Black Hair Crash Course |

This small site offers instructions for french twisting, and weaving, as well as treating damaged hair and other types of hairstyling that can be found in the site's archive section.

6. Royalty Braiding |

This web site hosted by a Los Angeles hair product company has a thumbnail photo gallery that shows examples of individual braids, twists, bobbed wraps, and french braid cornrows.




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1. Dread History: The African Diaspora, Ethiopianism, and Rastafari |

This brief essay examines the origins of Rastafarianism in the struggle for African liberation from the colonial powers, its presence throughout the African Diaspora, and the people's culture of Jamaica. The site offers a photo gallery of thumbnails, an index of terms, and a selection of books and music for further interest.

2. Dreadlock Conference 2001 |

The fourth annual Northern California dreadlock conference in Sacramento, California. Multiple workshops, vendors, and musical performances.

3. Sisterlocks |

Sisterlocks is a form of lock and natural hair care system.  It was founded in 1993 by Dr. JoAnne Cornwell, a professor of Africana Studies at San Diego State University.  The web site provides legal proceedings of the American Hairbraiders and Natural Haircare Association's struggle for control of their cultural practice against the California Barbering and Cosmetology Board.





1. Black Skin |

This information is an excerpt from an American Academy of Dermatology pamphlet titled Black Skin. It discusses such issues as hair, hair loss and breakage, ingrown hair, nails, variations in skin color, dry skin, and more. Information is provided on obtaining this and other pamphlets at cost.

2. "Hair Diseases in African-Americans Require Specialized Knowledge" |

This brief interview with Dermatologist Dr. Gary J. Brauner who publishes scientific research related to skin diseases in African-Americans addresses how hair styling and grooming can lead to hair diseases.

3. "How to Achieve and Maintain Long and Healthy Black Hair" |

This brief article discusses the structure of Black hair and its relationship to scalp oils that play an important role in the dryness of our hair. The author offers advise for growing stronger, healthier hair.

4. The Healthy Womenís Guide to Skin, Hair and Nail Care |

This page is an excerpt from the Womenís Complete Health Book (The Philip Lief Group, Inc., 1995) of the American Medical Womenís Association. It provides general information on what skin, hair and nails are, how they grow, and how to care for and maintain them properly.

5. USFDA/CFSAN Cosmetics |

This is the US Food and Drug Administration and Center of Food Safety and Applied Nutritionís list of links to articles and reports on cosmetic issues published by the FDA or CFSAN. The titles of some relevant articles are:
a. "Hair Dyes and Straighteners"
b. "Lead Acetate used in Hair Dye Products"
c. "Decoding the Cosmetic Label"
d. "Primers for Artificial Nails"
e. "Hair Replacement: What Works, What Doesn't"
f. and more



MADAME C. J. WALKER         

1. "First Black Millionaire's Home on Display" |

Here is an article on the 1998 opening of Madam Walker's Harlem mansion, Villa Lewaro, for public tours. It was open to help funding for the United Negro College Fund, and has since closed its door to the public.

2. Harlem 1900-1940: Schomburg Exhibit C.J. Walker |

This very brief entry on Madam C.J. Walker is included in the Harlem 1900-1940 virtual exhibit of the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, located in Harlm, New York. The exhibit includes a timeline of events, a list of other resources on that time period, and a curriculum for teachers using the exhibit.

3. Madam C.J. Walker |

This site is maintained by A'Lelia Bundles, Madam Walker's great-great granddaughter. Bundles has authored Madam C.J. Walker-Entrepreneur (Chelsea House, 1991), and most recently, On Her Own Ground: The Life and Times of Madam C.J. Walker (Scribner/A Lisa Drew Book, 2001). The FAQs and Suggested Readings pages provide further information about Madam Walker.

4. Madam C.J. Walker (Sarah Breedlove McWilliams Walker): Inventor, Businesswoman

This brief biography of Madam C.J. Walker is a part of the Faces of Science: African Americans in the Sciences website. It mainly draws on draws on the work of A'Lelia P.Bundles. The Additional Bibliographic Sources page provides a listing of work on Madam Walker, including obituaries after her death in 1919.

5. Madam C.J. Walker: United States Postal Service |

This 32 cents US postal stamp of Madam C.J. Walker was issued in 1998 for Black History Month.

6. Madam C.J. Walker Collection |

This is Indiana Historical Society's webpage for the manuscripts and archives of Madame C.J. Walker. It provides a concise historical sketch of Madam Walker, as well as a box and folder listing of the collection.

7. Two American Entrepreneurs: Madam C.J. Walker and J.C. Penney |

This site is a feature of the National Register of Historical Places' Teaching With Historic Places web site. Good resource for junior high and high school history teachers. This lesson plan compares and contrasts the business storis of Madam Walker and J.C. Penney using biographical outlines, study guides, images, maps, and activities.

8. The Madam Walker Theatre Center |

This is the home site of the Madam C.J. Walker Manufacturing Company Building in Indianapolis, Indiana, built in 1927, and now called the Madam Walker Theatre Center. The site mainly serves as a calendar of events for the center's theatrical performances, art education programs, and award banquets. There is no insider information provided about Madam Walker, early uses of the building, or what its role has been in the Black community of Indianapolis.
  Madame Walker Theatre Center: Short bio of Madam C. J. Walker
  Madame Walker Theatre Center: History of the Walker Center





1. Mathematical Patterns in African American Hairstyles |

This paper by Dr. Gloria Gilmer further explores the mathematical complexities and depth of the practices of every day life. Great for teachers - it is organized to be an in-class activity for middle school math.

2. The African Fractals Multi Media Project: Black Hairstyles |

Important research by Drs. Ron Eglash of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and Gloria Gilmer of the State University of New York at Buffalo into the contribution of African hairstyling to mathematics. This research is important because it privileges and celebrates the knowledge internal to the Black community.





1. American Health and Beauty Aids Institute |

AHABAI was founded in Chicago in 1981 by ten Black-owned beauty-related businesses. They offer annual college and cosmetology school scholarships, as well as an annual Proud Lady Beauty Show. This site provides background information on AHABAI and links into the ethnic beauty industry.

2. National Black Bridal Association |

NBBA is a nation-wide network of wedding industry professionals and consultants who coordinate different aspects of a wedding from catering to hair appointments.

3. Society of Permanent Cosmetic Professionals |

This site provides articles, schedule of events and a directory listing for the permanent cosmetics industry.





1. "Braidersí protest breathes life into textbook economics" |

African hair braiders across the nation battling with state boards of cosmetology over expensive licensing procedures that are irrelevant to our cultural practice.

2. "Fighting California's Hair-brained Regulations" |

One of the many articles on Dr. JoAnne Cornwell of the Africana Studies Department at San Diego State University and the creator of "sisterlocks" against the California Board of Barbering and Cosmetology. The state agency mandated that natural hairstylists go through the expensive licensure process to get a full cosmetology license whil they haven't added natural hair care to the curriculum.

3. From Assimilation to Appropriation: The Politics of Black Hair in America |

This site is a good example of constructing cyberspace around a research paper. According to the introduction, it "explores identity and the application of assimilation, cultural nationalism, and appropriation to Black women's hair" from the 1800s to the present. The paper is organized into three successive time periods, in which Hollins examines the changing tactics of establishing identity through hair. Each page ends with discussion questions. Also included are a short bibliography and webliography, and photo gallery.

4. "School's hairdo ban tangles with ethnic culture" |

A Chicago Tribune story of a suburban elementary school's ban on hair ornaments, beads, coloring, colored hair extensions, zig-zagged braids, cornrows, dreadlocks, and ponytails for boys. The school administration justified the ban on Black people's hair by calling it an "anti-gang measure".

5. "Suspending Rastafarian Police Officer for Wearing Dreadlocks Violates Religious Liberty, ACLU Says" |

The Baltimore police department suspended an officer for wearing dreadlocks. The department prohibits cornrows, braids, and dreadlocks.